Reading with Rose: In the Valley of Wharton

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Edith Wharton. Courtesy The Mount.

On Wednesday, March  8th, 2017, the Nichols House Museum joined the world in celebrating International Women’s Day–a day devoted to celebrating women and affirming our intention to further their progress. This year,  the theme was “Be Bold for Change.” In honor of celebrating women’s history, this month’s book blog will take a look at Rose Nichols’ Edith Wharton collection, which consists of three novels and one non-fiction work.

Edith Wharton was born Edith Newbold Jones in New York in 1862. As a child, she traveled Europe with her parents and two brothers, which cultivated a lifelong passion for literature, architecture, and art. In 1885, at the ‘old’ age of 23, she married Edward Robbins Wharton, thirteen years her senior. Their unconventional marriage ended in divorce in 1913. Her experience during this time led to her therapist suggesting that she focus on fiction writing as a way to cope with stress. In 1902, Wharton and her husband settled in Lenox, Massachusetts. Today, their estate, known as The Mount, is open to visitors.[1]

Today, Edith Wharton’s is remembered as the first woman to be awarded the Pulitzer Prize for fiction, and as the quintessential author of American high society. [2] What is less well-known is that Wharton’s first love was not fiction, but architecture. Her first novel explored a theme my regular readers might recognize: Italian villas.

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Cover of Edith Wharton’s Italian Villas and Their Gardens.

Italian Villas and Their Gardens was first published in 1897. Rose’s 1904 edition features illustrations by Maxfield Parrish, a renowned American illustrator. The illustrations (examples below) featured in this book make up for the fact that the other three Wharton novels in Rose’s library do not include illustrations.

The three novels in Rose’s library are eclectic. The Valley of Decision (1902) pays homage to her fascination with eighteenth-century Italy. Next to this novel in Rose’s library is Hudson River Bracketed (1929), a lesser-known novel featuring protagonist Vance Weston, a writer, and his lover, Halo Spear. Critics believe this novel divulges Wharton’s own personal and professional experiences. [3] The third Wharton novel in Rose’s library is notable as one of Wharton’s most popular and enduring works. Ethan Frome (1911) features the longing and desire explored in many of Wharton’s novels, as well as a Massachusetts setting—forging another connection between Wharton and our matriarch Rose Standish Nichols.

 

Notes

[1] The Mount. Edith Wharton: A Biography. http://www.edithwharton.org/discover/edith-wharton/

[2] Dwight, Eleanor. Edith Wharton: An Extraordinary Life. Abrams, 1994.

[3] Ibid.

By Victoria Johnson. Visitor Services and Research Associate.

 

 

 

 

Roses of Remembrance: Celebrating John Keats

John Keats, by Joseph Severn, 1819 - NPG 1605 - © National Portrait Gallery, London
John Keats by Joseph Severn. Courtesy National Portrait Gallery, London.

The month of February brings with it not only Valentine’s Day, but also the anniversary of the death of one of the most beloved and celebrated poets of Romanticism: John Keats. In honor of this, we will take a look at Keats’ life through one of the books in Rose’s personal collection, titled, “Roses of Romance: from the poems of John Keats.”

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The cover of Roses of Romance.

John Keats was born in October 1795 in London, England; he became the eldest of five children to Thomas and Franny Keats. From an early age, Keats appreciated literature, but he studied and earned a license in medicine in July of 1816, the month after his first published poem appeared in Examiner’s magazine. Keats befriended many of his literary idols before and during the six years he took up writing as his livelihood. While Keats’ poetry was ill-received during his lifetime; his fame and celebrated status arose during the Victorian era, thanks to the praises of such figures as Alfred, Lord Tennyson and the Pre-Raphaelites. [1]

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Illustration featured in Roses of Romance.

In 1820, Keats began to suffer episodes of blood-spitting and heart palpitations, knowing that he likely had the same tuberculosis that killed his mother, brother, and uncle, his doctor ordered him to Italy. An ill Keats left England on October 2, 1820, arrived in Naples on October 21st, and reached his final destination of Rome on November 15, 1820. Keats succumbed to his illness on February 23, 1821. He is buried at the protestant cemetery in Rome. [2]

Roses of Romance was published by Roberts Brothers in Boston in 1891. This edition of Keats poems features poems “selected and illustrated by” Edmund Henry Garrett. Garrett was a prolific illustrator of famous poems, novels, stories, and song books, creating bookplates and illustrations for works by major authors. [3]

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Illustration from Roses of Romance.

Garrett was also an artist, and his work can be seen in local institutions such as the Boston Public Library, the Winchester Public Library, and the Massachusetts State House. Thus, this book in Rose’s collection contains the work of two notable artists.

Roses of Romance features four of Keats’ most notable narrative poems, written between 1817 and 1819. La Belle Dame Sans Merci‘ is the shortest of the four poems featured in this book. ‘Lamia,’ ‘The Eve of St. Agnes,’ and ‘Isabella‘ are of a length more typical of narrative poetry. All four feature Keats’ distinct poetic style.

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Roma- Piazza di Spagna. Postcard from Rose Standish Nichols’ collection. 
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“Rome. March 7th. It was good of you to write me when you were so ill.”

As we explored in last month’s blog, Rose traveled to Italy rather frequently gathering research for her own gardens and book. These postcards above are from Rose’s astounding postcard collection. They show the Piazza di Spagna, where Keats lodged during his short stay in Italy, and a temple in Rome, the city where Keats was laid to rest. [4]

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Excerpt of a stanza from ‘Isabella; or, the Pot of Basil.’

Notes

[1] “Keats, John (1795–1821),” Kelvin Everest in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, eee ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison (Oxford: OUP, 2004); online ed., ed. David Cannadine, May 2006.

[2] Ibid.

[3] “Edmund Henry Garrett.” In Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1936. Biography in Context.

[4] “Keats, John (1795–1821),” Kelvin Everest in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, eee ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison (Oxford: OUP, 2004); online ed., ed. David Cannadine, May 2006.

 

By Victoria Johnson, Visitor Services and Research Associate.

 

 

Reading with Rose: Treasure Island & The Weir of Hermiston

Books: Treasure Island

               The Weir of Hermiston

Author: Robert Louis Stevenson

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Robert Louis Stevenson by John Singer Sargent, 1887. Taft Museum of Art.

Robert Louis Stevenson was born on November 13, 1850 in Edinburgh, Scotland. His prolific career produced some of the most enduring novels of the Victorian era. [1] Two of his most significant works, Treasure Island and The Weir of Hermiston, can be found in Rose Standish Nichols’s eclectic library collection.

Treasure Island

Stevenson began writing what is arguably his most famous novel in 1881. This story was originally published between October 1881 and January 1882 in serialized form in a magazine for young boys called Young Folks [2], under the pseudonym “Captain George North.” The wild plot contains the swashbuckling adventures the Scottish author became known for. Upon its release in Young Folks, the story received little fanfare. It was published in book form in November 1883, and was so well-received that to this day it has never been out of print. [3] Rose’s edition of Treasure Island is inscribed “To Rose Standish Nichols 1894.” It lives in the bookcase behind Arthur Nichols’ desk in Rose’s library.

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The Captain’s Papers “The Squire and I were both peering over his shoulder.”-Page 49.

The Weir of Hermiston

The full title of Stevenson’s last novel is, appropriately, The Weir of Hermiston: An Unfinished Romance. Stevenson began writing this novel, which many critics portended to be his true masterpiece, in 1892. Stevenson spent hours working on the story the very day he suffered a fatal cerebral hemorrhage—leaving Hermiston “unfinished.” Today, this novel is overshadowed by the raw psychological thriller Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and Stevenson’s aforementioned children’s stories; however, the plot of The Weir of Hermiston is perhaps his most personal. According to biographers, the damaged relationship between father and son mirrors Stevenson’s own relationship to his father. Furthermore, the figure of Adam Weir was based on the real life Lord Justice Clerk Robert McQueen, Lord Braxfield. [4]

w-colvinAlthough Stevenson died before completing the novel, he reportedly left notes detailing its intended ending. Some of these notes appear in editions edited by the author’s friend Sidney Colvin. [5] Rose’s edition of The Weir of Hermiston was published by Charles Scribner’s Sons in 1896 and is inscribed with her name. It lives in the bookcase Margaret Nichols Shurcliff built for Rose, in the corner of her bedroom.

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[1] Mehew, Ernest. “Stevenson, Robert Louis (1850–1894).” Ernest Mehew In Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, edited by H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004. Online ed., edited by David Cannadine, September 2014.

[2]”Chronology.” The RLS Website. http://www.robert-louis-stevenson.org/. 14 October 2016.

[3] Mehew, Ernest. “Stevenson, Robert Louis (1850–1894).” Ernest Mehew In Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, edited by H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004. Online ed., edited by David Cannadine, September 2014.

[4] Ibid.

[5] “Works. Weir of Hermiston.” The RLS Website. http://www.robert-louis-stevenson.org/. 14 October 2016.

By Victoria Johnson, Visitor Services and Research Associate.

Capturing the Captivating Robert Louis Stevenson

Hidden in plain sight in the halls of the Nichols House Museum is a depiction of one of Victorian literature’s most enduring authors: Robert Louis Stevenson. Augustus Saint-Gaudens’ plaque of Stevenson became one of his most popular works, first modeled in 1887, with copies of it selling well after Saint-Gaudens’ death in 1907. [1] In fact, the plaque was so memorable that Saint-Gaudens was commissioned to create a copy that would serve as Stevenson’s memorial in Edinburgh. This plaque, completed in 1904 and residing in St. Giles Cathedral, remains the only memorial of Stevenson in his native country. The story of how Gaudens’ Robert Louis Stevenson plaque came to be echoes the travels and international friendships that Rose Nichols so appreciated.

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Robert Louis Stevenson Memorial. St. Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh, Scotland. Saint-Gaudens’ original plaque depicted Stevenson holding a cigarette in his hand. For the church memorial, Saint-Gaudens changed the cigarette to a quill. [2]
Stevenson, one of Scotland’s greatest literary treasures, belongs to an elite group of writers who can claim success beyond their own lifetimes. His writing inspired even those who seldom read to pick up his stories. One man who falls into this category is none other than “God-like sculptor” Augustus Saint-Gaudens.

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Augustus Saint-Gaudens in 1905. Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site, Cornish, New Hampshire.

Saint-Gaudens had little taste in literature until his friend Mr. Wells introduced him to a work entitled “New Arabian Nights,” which “set [him] aflame as have few things in literature.” [3] He was instantly impressed, and when the opportunity presented itself for him to meet the author of these stories, he jumped at the chance. The American painter Will H. Low, a mutual friend of both Stevenson and Saint-Gaudens, arranged for the two to meet in the autumn of 1887, when Stevenson (an avid traveler) was on his way to the Adirondacks. He accepted Saint-Gaudens’ offer to “make his portrait” and first sat for the sculptor at the Hotel Albert on Eleventh Street. [4] The original portrait took five sittings which consisted of two to three hours each. Shortly after this initial meeting, however, Saint-Gaudens decided to expand the portrait to include the author’s hands. He began this expansion by using his own wife Augusta’s hands before realizing that they did not serve the task. [5]

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Self Portrait at Montigny, Will H. Low, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C.

Arrangements were made for a second meeting between the sculptor and the author. Upon Stevenson’s move to Manasquan, New Jersey, he once again met with Saint-Gaudens to sit for his portrait. It was this sitting which gave Saint-Gaudens a lasting impression of Stevenson. Because it was decided that the author looked too stiff simply sitting in no useful occupation, Saint-Gaudens suggested he should pose in his natural state: writing. To this Stevenson not only agreed, but took the suggestion to heart by writing a letter to Homer Saint-Gaudens, Augustus’ son. [6]

Once the plaque was completed, the author and the sculptor never met in person again, but did maintain a friendship as evidenced by the exchange of several letters. Stevenson referred to Saint-Gaudens as his “God-like sculptor,” [7] and Saint-Gaudens was pleased to consider the author who captivated his literary attention a friend. After the original rectangular plaque was completed, Saint-Gaudens began casting smaller, circular editions of his work in 1898, including the one that hangs in the hallway of the Nichols House Museum, just outside the parlor—which is inscribed “To Rose Nichols,” his niece. As a tribute to the mutual friend who introduced them, the plaque features the words of Stevenson’s poem “To Will H. Low:”

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Detail of plaque including title, inscription and first stanza of “To Will H. Low”

Youth now flees on feathered foot
Faint and fainter sounds the flute,
Rarer songs of gods; and still
Somewhere on the sunny hill,
Or along the winding stream,
Through the willows, flits a dream;
Flits but shows a smiling face,
Flees but with so quaint a grace,
None can choose to stay at home,
All must follow, all must roam.

This is unborn beauty: she
Now in air floats high and free,
Takes the sun and breaks the blue;—
Late with stooping pinion flew
Raking hedgerow trees, and wet
Her wing in silver streams, and set
Shining foot on temple roof:
Now again she flies aloof,
Coasting mountain clouds and kiss’t
By the evening’s amethyst.

In wet wood and miry lane,
Still we pant and pound in vain;
Still with leaden foot we chase
Waning pinion, fainting face;
Still with gray hair we stumble on,
Till, behold, the vision gone!

Where hath fleeting beauty led?
To the doorway of the dead.
Life is over, life was gay:
We have come the primrose way.

Even though the Nichols family had their own Stevenson plaque to admire, Marian took the opportunity to visit the memorial in St. Giles- a testament to how much the family admired the work of their ‘Uncle Gus.’

“This morning we are going to St. Giles to see the Stevenson monument, and this afternoon we are to drive to Rosalyn. You remember that we couldn’t get into the Chapel before, as it was Sunday so I shall have a chance to see that.”- Marian Nichols to Arthur Nichols, August 30, 1904.

[1] Augustus Saint-Gaudens 1848-1907: A Master of American Sculpture. Toulouse: Musèe des Augustins, 1999.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Saint-Gaudens, Homer. The Reminiscences of Augustus Saint-Gaudens. Vol  1. London: Andrew Melrose, 1913: 367-389.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Ibid.

By Victoria Johnson, Visitor Services and Research Associate.