Roses of Remembrance: Celebrating John Keats

John Keats, by Joseph Severn, 1819 - NPG 1605 - © National Portrait Gallery, London
John Keats by Joseph Severn. Courtesy National Portrait Gallery, London.

The month of February brings with it not only Valentine’s Day, but also the anniversary of the death of one of the most beloved and celebrated poets of Romanticism: John Keats. In honor of this, we will take a look at Keats’ life through one of the books in Rose’s personal collection, titled, “Roses of Romance: from the poems of John Keats.”

img_5702-2
The cover of Roses of Romance.

John Keats was born in October 1795 in London, England; he became the eldest of five children to Thomas and Franny Keats. From an early age, Keats appreciated literature, but he studied and earned a license in medicine in July of 1816, the month after his first published poem appeared in Examiner’s magazine. Keats befriended many of his literary idols before and during the six years he took up writing as his livelihood. While Keats’ poetry was ill-received during his lifetime; his fame and celebrated status arose during the Victorian era, thanks to the praises of such figures as Alfred, Lord Tennyson and the Pre-Raphaelites. [1]

img_5714
Illustration featured in Roses of Romance.

In 1820, Keats began to suffer episodes of blood-spitting and heart palpitations, knowing that he likely had the same tuberculosis that killed his mother, brother, and uncle, his doctor ordered him to Italy. An ill Keats left England on October 2, 1820, arrived in Naples on October 21st, and reached his final destination of Rome on November 15, 1820. Keats succumbed to his illness on February 23, 1821. He is buried at the protestant cemetery in Rome. [2]

Roses of Romance was published by Roberts Brothers in Boston in 1891. This edition of Keats poems features poems “selected and illustrated by” Edmund Henry Garrett. Garrett was a prolific illustrator of famous poems, novels, stories, and song books, creating bookplates and illustrations for works by major authors. [3]

img_5728
Illustration from Roses of Romance.

Garrett was also an artist, and his work can be seen in local institutions such as the Boston Public Library, the Winchester Public Library, and the Massachusetts State House. Thus, this book in Rose’s collection contains the work of two notable artists.

Roses of Romance features four of Keats’ most notable narrative poems, written between 1817 and 1819. La Belle Dame Sans Merci‘ is the shortest of the four poems featured in this book. ‘Lamia,’ ‘The Eve of St. Agnes,’ and ‘Isabella‘ are of a length more typical of narrative poetry. All four feature Keats’ distinct poetic style.

pc1-1043_front
Roma- Piazza di Spagna. Postcard from Rose Standish Nichols’ collection. 
pc1-1043_back
“Rome. March 7th. It was good of you to write me when you were so ill.”

As we explored in last month’s blog, Rose traveled to Italy rather frequently gathering research for her own gardens and book. These postcards above are from Rose’s astounding postcard collection. They show the Piazza di Spagna, where Keats lodged during his short stay in Italy, and a temple in Rome, the city where Keats was laid to rest. [4]

img_5731
Excerpt of a stanza from ‘Isabella; or, the Pot of Basil.’

Notes

[1] “Keats, John (1795–1821),” Kelvin Everest in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, eee ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison (Oxford: OUP, 2004); online ed., ed. David Cannadine, May 2006.

[2] Ibid.

[3] “Edmund Henry Garrett.” In Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1936. Biography in Context.

[4] “Keats, John (1795–1821),” Kelvin Everest in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, eee ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison (Oxford: OUP, 2004); online ed., ed. David Cannadine, May 2006.

 

By Victoria Johnson, Visitor Services and Research Associate.

 

 

“Lady in Rose Colored Robe”

In celebration of the Chinese New Year, we are exploring a set of four Chinese export paintings which adorn the walls of Rose Standish Nichols’ library. Often asked about by visitors, these eglomisé panels are popular objects in the Nichols House Museum. Eglomisé is a French term for the decorative technique of reverse painting on glass. These early nineteenth paintings are remnants of the Ch’ien-lung period (Ch’ing Dynasty, 1644-1912) produced for western export trade.

Direct trade between Europe and China began in 1517 when Manuel I of Portugal dispatched an embassy to Peking.[1] Commercial interests in China spread throughout Europe and by the nineteenth century, America had surpassed Europe in trade.[2] A cross-pollination of art and ideas across continents occurred and as a result, Asian export art became popularized.

Much of the art being produced in China at this time was intended for export. Chinese artists and makers anticipated the aesthetic values of European and American consumers. Both the anglicized faces of the women in these paintings and the eglomisé technique evidence this approach to selling Asian art on a western buyer’s market. This was, in essence, art for the foreigner:“Meeting the enthusiastic demand for colorful paintings, numerous studios were set up in Canton where foreign trade flourished and businessmen and merchants from around the world converged.”[3]

The luxurious dress and flirtatious smiles of these women would have been considered highly suggestive when the paintings were first created. Physical allure has been a central focus in depicting women in art across all cultures. In China, the visual culture of the region produced varying images of women in accordance with the fashions, aesthetics and concepts of beauty.[4]

Rose Standish Nichols purchased these paintings in 1941 from Yamanaka and Company Inc., a Japanese firm located at 424 Boylston Street, Boston. These paintings ranged in price from $17.50 to $35.00 at the time of their purchase.

img_0001
Receipt from 1941 purchase of eglomisé painting

 

Although she was extremely well-traveled, Rose never visited any Asian countries. Even still, her appreciation for Asian culture is evident throughout the Nichols House. Chinese export porcelain was incredibly prolific during the 18th and 19th centuries and the museum houses some beautiful pieces. The porcelain “slop” bowl shown here (ca. 1780-1800) is an excellent example of Chinese export porcelain in the Nichols House collection.

1961-164-1
Chinese export porcelain slop bowl, ca. 1780-1800

A slop bowl was a component of the traditional tea set. Early uses included emptying undrunk cold tea into the slop bowl before refilling the cup with fresh, hot tea. This slop bowl depicts a European scene of three children fishing against a background of trees and a parish church. Like the eglomisé paintings, the imagery demonstrates how Chinese artists were assimilating western culture in their work.

Rose’s postcard collection also reveals her interests in Chinese culture.

pc1-249

pc1-990_front

pc1-990_back

Rose’s collection of over 1200 postcards speaks to her love of travel and curious personality. Born in 1872 under the Year of the Monkey, Rose is characterized as curious, quick-witted and intelligent. Happy Chinese New Year from the Nichols House Museum, Year of the Rooster!

3-1924-02
Nichols House Museum library, ca. 1940-1960.

[1] Palmer, Arlene M. 1976. A Winterthur guide to Chinese export porcelain. n.p.: New York : Crown, 1976: 10.

[2] Ibid, 11.

[3] Till, Barry and Paula Swart. “Art for the Foreigner: 19th Century Chinese Export Paintings from the Collection of the Art Gallery of Greater Victoria.” Arts Of Asia 45, no. 4 (n.d.):, 111.

[4] “Court Ladies or Pin-Up Girls?” Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. March 09, 2015. Accessed February 02, 2017. http://www.mfa.org/exhibitions/court-ladies-or-pin-up-girls.

By Laura Cunningham, Collections Inventory Associate

“No Pleasanter Place”: Reading with Rose

As many of our readers know, January 11th, 2016 marked Rose Standish Nichols’ 145th birthday. In celebration of this fiercely intelligent, independent woman, we will take a look at one of her own published books in this month’s ‘Reading with Rose:’ Italian Pleasure Gardens.

rsn-mastlands
Rose Standish Nichols in her garden in Cornish, New Hampshire. Courtesy Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.

Rose Standish Nichols was not only a distinguished landscape architect, but a world traveler, too. She did not travel merely for pleasure, but conducted thorough research during her trips to Europe so that she could supplement her landscape commissions with firsthand experience in sprawling estate gardens. In 1931, Rose published her third book, this time focusing on Italian gardens in the aptly-titled Italian Pleasure Gardens.

In her book, Rose details the histories and contemporary features of gardens throughout Italy, including villas in Tuscany, Siena, Perugia, Florence, the Riviera, and the Lake District. We can trace Rose’s experiences within these cities through numerous letters she sent home during her many trips to the country. At times, she was accompanied by friends; she writes to Margaret below:

“This morning Frances Arnold Anita Dible and I have been to the Villa Papa Giulio, which is about ten minutes walk beyond the Porto del Popolo.  We had a very good time and took lots of photographs.”

Rose Nichols to Margaret Nichols [Shurcliff]- February 4, 1899

img_0002
One of the many images of Italian villas Rose included in Italian Pleasure Gardens.

After “Italian Pleasure Gardens” was published, Rose continued to enjoy travelling to the country where she conducted her research. Indeed, we can read Rose’s words with sincerity when she writes “to those travellers who are weary of cities and who love both art and nature I can recommend these gardens as a joy to the eye and a balm to the soul.”

img_0004

“It is cold and rainy here and I feel rather swallowed up by the immensity of this old city – after the cozy intimate atmosphere of Florence.  Before leaving there I spent a week in Mrs. Davis’ pleasant old villa where I had a suite of three rooms.”

Rose to Marian Nichols- March 4, 1931

“I am to spend tomorrow night at the heavenly Villa Sante and shall push on the following afternoon to Florence where Mrs. Lathrop is expecting me at the Villa Tomegiani.  From there I shall go to visit the Tomegianis at their handsome Lucca villa, at least it is four or five miles outside Lucca on a hill with a beautiful view.  After that I shall go to Venice to stay until the last of June.”

Rose to Marian- June 5, 1931

img_0001
An illustration from Italian Pleasure Gardens.

It is clear that Rose imbues into her writing the firsthand experience of traveling through these Italian pleasure gardens. Before the close of the book, she includes a “Garden Itinerary” that guides readers through their own tours of the country, through the very cities and gardens she herself visited. The book, as a whole, serves as simultaneously as a history lesson, as Rose takes us through the history of the  gardens in view of the country’s political and social cultures; a  guidebook; and a testament to the love Rose had for the career she devoted her life to: the garden, in all its splendor.

img_0003
Rose concludes her book with many tips and suggestions for readers seeking to visit Italian villas and their gardens.

Bibliography

Nichols, Rose Standish. Italian Pleasure Gardens. Dodd, Mead & Company, 1931.

 

By Victoria Johnson, Visitor Services and Research Associate.

Happy Birthday Rose!

Today marks Rose Standish Nichols’ 145th birthday. To celebrate this day we are looking back at a likeness of Rose created shortly after her eighteenth birthday: an oil painting showing Rose with a powerful gaze and a pink dress. This painting represents Rose during a time of her life when most women her age were expected to focus on attracting a male suitor. Whether or not Rose was interested in finding a husband is open for interpretation. A few letters suggest an interest in romance yet her posture and tone in this painting of her as a young adult illustrates a fiercely independent and assertive woman.

There are some very attractive people at this hotel.  Next [to] me at [a] table is one of the handsomest and swellest looking men I have ever seen…How I wish you could see this kind of perfection at dinner in a dress-suit with his moustache waxed to an inimitable points…Now I suppose you can’t help wondering if I am not deeply in love for once in my life. 

Rose to Marian, 1896.

Rose lived 88 years independently but was rarely alone. She had a large network of friends and colleagues from all walks of life, both at home and internationally. One of her friends, Margarita “Daisy” Pumpelly, was the artist that painted her portrait in 1890. Daisy was born in 1873, one year after Rose, and died in 1959, one year before Rose. Their families, both from Boston, vacationed in Cornish and Dublin, active artist communities in New Hampshire. Rose and Daisy were both artistically gifted, apprenticing with local artists in New Hampshire and continuing their studies in Europe. [1] Despite all the parallels in the lives of the two women, one thing set them apart: Daisy was married.

Daisy Pumpelly married Henry “Harry” Lloyd Smyth in November 1894, when she was 21 years old. Despite her marriage to Harry, a geologist at Harvard University, and their four children, Daisy maintained an independent lifestyle. [2] In September of 1894, two months before Daisy and Harry’s wedding, Daisy’s sister wrote to Rose’s sister, Marian about Daisy’s travels in Paris:

“Daisy writes glowing accounts of Paris they had several adventures on the way. I should think that she would be excited at the thought of seeing Harry so soon, but to all appearances she does not show it.”

Elise Pumpelly to Marian, September 6, 1894.

Throughout Daisy and Harry’s marriage, they often traveled independently. In the Nichols family’s correspondence, mentions of Daisy and Harry in the same place are infrequent. She even traveled out West in 1920 with her father and two siblings, while Harry remained in New England. [3]

pumpelly-smyth-3
“Sunrise near Agua Caliente, From a water-color by Margarita Pumpelly Smyth” [4].
Harry and Daisy had residences in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, but Daisy also had a presence in New York City. In the 1940s, Daisy rented a brownstone at 48 West 10th Street in Greenwich Village where she lived with Juliet Thompson, also a fine artist. The two painters spent many years there, working in their studios and entertaining guests. [5] 

thompsonsmythe
Daisy Pumpelly Smyth (left) and Juliet Thompson (right)

 

jtroomportrait
Like Rose, Daisy and Juliet were followers of the Baha’i faith. This photograph shows the interior of Juliet and Daisy’s house, complete with a portrait of Abdu’l-Baha painted by Juliet [6].

 

The link between Rose Nichols and Daisy Pumpelly Smyth is deeper than friend to friend or artist to sitter. Rose and Daisy both represent independent and artistic women at the turn of the twentieth century, committed to their careers and artistic practices despite societal expectations. On Rose’s 145th birthday we celebrate a portrait, connecting the lives of two female friends through art and social progress.

[1] Quirk, Lisa. “Margarita Pumpelly Smyth.” A Circle of Friends: Art Colonies of Cornish and Dublin. Durham: University Art Galleries, University of New Hampshire, 1985. 117.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid

[4] Pumpelly, Raphael. My Reminiscences. New York: Henry Holt, 1918. 779. Print.

[5] Thompson, Juliet, and Marzieh Gail. “At 48th West Tenth.” The Diary of Juliet Thompson. Los Angeles: Kalimát, 1983. X.

[6] Parsons, Agnes. Abdu’l-Bahá in America, Agnes Parsons’ Diary, April 11 1912 – November 11, 1912. Los Angeles: Kalimát, 1996. 154.

 

By Emma Welty, Head of Collections and Administration.

Reading with Rose: ‘Tis the Season

For this month’s book blog, we are going to explore a book owned by two generations of Nichols women: The Star of Bethlehem, or, Stories for Christmas. 

The Star of Bethlehem was published in 1852 in Philadelphia.

This book provides valuable insight into the Nichols’ family values. Although it is inscribed to Rose Standish Nichols, it originally belonged to her mother, Elizabeth Homer Nichols. Elizabeth, or “Lizzie,” as her family called her, was eight years old when she received the book as a gift from her mother. It’s a pleasure to find a book that was passed along to Rose, from the mother she so loved.

inscription
“Lizzie Homer. From her Mother, Sept 12th 1852. 8 Greenville St. Roxbury.”

If you’ve come on a tour with us, you know that the Nichols family traveled quite frequently. Some of their travels took place during the winter season. In December of 1893, Elizabeth wrote to Rose about a tea party she hosted during the winter season:

“My tea yesterday was successful. It was a fine day and I think there were about fifty here.[…] Then we had a little mistletoe about […] and the rooms really looked very attractive.”

Elizabeth writing to her daughter, Rose, December 19, 1893

pc1-238_front
Postcard from Rose Standish Nichols’ collection.

Three years later, Elizabeth told Rose of another winter season, spent in the Nichols’ summer home in Cornish, New Hampshire:

“We find things here about as we left them, the principal difference being that there is enough snow, though barely enough to justify sleighing. So as our new Canada sleigh, otherwise called a cariole, has arrived, papa and I have been out twice.”

Elizabeth writing to her daughter, Rose, January 26, 1896

mhn-sarah-william-jack-whitey-1920
Margaret with her children, Sarah, William and Jack (left to right) and their horse Whitey.

Wherever they were, the Nichols women didn’t let the winter season slow them down.

1-119
Margaret and Elizabeth, 1921.

Old Chest, New Woman

In Rose Standish Nichols’ bedroom, positioned at the end of her bed, is a seventeenth century English dowry chest. In 1910, the Nichols family acquired this chest from the company “John Wilson & Son” while abroad in England. For a time, this chest was likely placed in the front entry hall between two of the carved chairs that are now located in the library. The chest would have given this space the atmosphere of an English country house and as evidenced by the pastoral motifs throughout her needlework, we know this is a style Rose favored.

6-1964-04
The dowry chest seen in Rose Standish Nichols’ bedroom, 1964.

The dowry chest dates back to the Middle Ages, spanning many continents and cultures. By the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the custom had reached American shores and become popular amongst the middle class.[1] At this time, the tradition was affectionately renamed a “hope chest” often beginning at pre-adolescence. Becoming an accepted part of the American marriage custom, young women would have filled their hope chests with personal items in anticipation of marriage.[2]

mfa
Joined chest with drawer, 1699, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

 

This carved and paneled oak chest would have stored items belonging to a bride, transported from her father’s home to her new home with her husband; all personal wealth or inheritance attributed to a woman became her husband’s upon marriage. “Cupboards and textiles belonged to a category of household goods called ‘moveables.’ Unlike real estate, which was typically transmitted from father to son, moveables formed the core of female inheritance.”[3] The initials of the original owner, H.I., adorn the front of the chest. At this time, “to inscribe one’s name on a material object assured some sort of immortality.”[4] Further, since “barely a third of women in late-seventeenth-century Massachusetts could sign their own names, these [initials] signified both ownership and literacy.”[5] Perhaps more than any other piece in the Nichols House Museum, this dowry chest represents the strides women have made in having their rights and freedoms acknowledged.

1961-510-5

All three of the Nichols sisters were intrepid pioneers in the fight for women’s equality, embodying the spirit of the New Woman. Rose, Marian and Margaret were all active participants in the suffrage movement and as her father recalls, Rose hosted suffrage events at 55 Mount Vernon Street.

“Rose invited about 30 ladies to a conference about Women’s Suffrage. Remarks were made by Mrs. Chas. Park of the Suffrage League, Mrs. Stone of the Elizabeth Home, and Mrs. Glenny of the Municipal League.”

 Arthur Nichols’ diary entry, Sunday, February 11, 1912

“About 50 ladies and gentlemen filled our parlor this evening to hear a talk about Women’s Suffrage. The speakers were Mrs. Florence Kelley, and Mrs. Charles Park. Mrs. Dewey gave an account of a visit to the strikers at Lawrence. Mrs. Kelley and Miss Wiggin dined with us.”

Arthur Nichols’ diary entry, Monday, February 12, 1912

The Mrs. Charles Park named above is almost certainly Maude Wood Park, a key figure in the suffrage movement. Maude Wood Park also attended Radcliffe College, graduating in 1898 one year prior to Marian. Finally, on August 26, 1920, the Nichols sisters witnessed a pivotal moment in U.S. women’s history, the ratification of the 19th Amendment, which provided full voting rights for women nationally. After women’s right to vote was acknowledged, Maude Wood Park served as the first president of the League of Women Voters, an organization of which Marian Nichols was a member.

Just one month later, Marian Nichols launched her campaign as Independent Candidate for Ward 8. Although she did not win this election, she remained influential in local politics.

marianposter
Marian Nichols’ 1920 campaign poster

The turn of the twentieth century marked the first time in American history where marriage was no longer imperative for women, allowing both Rose and Marian to lead successful careers as an alternative to family life. Despite being married and a mother to six children, Margaret Nichols-Schurcliff was also lionhearted. The youngest of the Nichols sisters, Margaret ran a carpentry business out of the top floor of her home at 66 Mount Vernon Street; a feat unheard of for a woman of her time.

mhn-business-card
Margaret Nichols Shurcliff’s business card from her carpentry business.

Today, women continue the fight for gender equality. Although we have not yet elected our first woman president, the undaunted spirit of the Nichols women brings hope that women will soon break the ultimate glass ceiling. This dowry chest sits at the base of Rose’s bed in bold confrontation of those who would discount women’s abilities and discourage them from leading active, engaged lives.

By Laura Cunningham, Archival Intern

[1] Otto, Herbert A., and Robert B. Andersen. “The Hope Chest and Dowry: American Custom?” The Family Life Coordinator 16, no. 1/2 (1967): 15-19. doi:10.2307/581576.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. The age of homespun: objects and stories in the creation of an American myth. n.p.: New York : Knopf : Distributed by Random House, 2001.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

Reading with Rose: Winnie-the-Pooh

90 Years in the Hundred-Acre Wood

The most recognized book in Rose Standish Nichols’ library is, without a doubt, A.A. Milne’s Winnie-the-Pooh. Few visitors have passed through its home on the second shelf of the third floor landing bookcase without noticing its bright pink spine. For those of you who have—and those of you who will—you may be interested to know that this year marks the 90th anniversary of the publication of the first Winnie-the-Pooh book.

winnie7winnie6

First published in 1926, Winnie-the-Pooh was the first of Milne’s stories that officially introduced readers to Winnie. The inspiration for this lovable teddy bear came from a stuffed-animal, bought at Harrods luxury department store, that belonged to Milne’s son. Milne’s stuffed-animal collection soon grew to include the inspirations for Pooh’s friends, and they now live permanently in the New York Public Library. Christopher Robin Milne—the namesake for the boy who travels with Pooh in the Enchanted Forest—named his stuffed teddy bear ‘Winnie’ after a black Canadian bear he had seen in at the zoo. Winnie-the-Pooh was so successful that it overshadowed much of A.A. Milne’s other work (including adult fiction), but he did appreciate that his stories resonated with children and adults. His son, Christopher Robin Milne, became a successful bookseller and writer. [1]

NPG P715; A.A. Milne; Christopher Robin Milne by Howard Coster
A.A. Milne; Christopher Robin Milne by Howard Coster, 1926. National Portrait Gallery, London.

Rose’s edition of Winnie-the-Pooh is the 203rd, printed in 1950 in New York and published by E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc. If you have come for a tour with us, you might wonder how Rose came to acquire this book. Unfortunately, this will remain a mystery for visitors and staff, as we have no record of how or why Rose acquired it. She would have been aged 78 in 1950, well past childhood. Perhaps Rose was one of those readers whom Milne was referring to when he said:

“These stories are about these good companions having wonderful times getting in and out of trouble. It is all very exciting and, really, quite thrilling, no matter how young or how old you may be.” [2]

winnie5
One of the book’s illustrations by Ernest Howard Shepard.

[1] Thwaite, Ann. “Milne, Alan Alexander (1882–1956).” Ann Thwaite In Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, edited by H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004. Online ed., edited by David Cannadine, January 2012.

[2] Milne, A.A. Winnie-the-Pooh. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc.1950.